Create a Metaphor
After reading, analyzing, and interpreting the text, students are asked to create a metaphor comparing the big ideas elicited from the text to something else. Students can use these metaphors to connect what they have read and learned to something relevant in their own lives or the world around them. Metaphors should be fully developed and easily understood by others.
Cubing is a strategy designed by Cowan & Cowan, 1980, Vaughan & Estes, 1986. Cubing can be used to strengthen students’ comprehension of a topic or concept and help expand students’ understanding of it from various perspectives.
Four Square Perspective or Conversations Across Time
This reading strategy helps students develop deeper insights by making connections between and across sources of different perspectives in response to a common topic, theme, understanding goal, or essential question. Students examine three different sources and use their understanding of the sources to respond to an essential question. The fourth square is left for the student to add his/her own personal connection to the question. This strategy can be differentiated by selection of material and essential questions.
Inquiry or I-Charts help students organize answers to several questions by providing an opportunity to compare prior knowledge with information from several texts. Students conclude by summarizing their research findings in order to address a larger issue, or understanding goal related to the discipline. James Hoffman (1982) is credited with developing I-Charts.
QAR, or “Question Answer Relationship”, was developed by Taffy Raphael (1988) to help students understand the relationship between different types of questions and their use of text to find the answers. That is because answers can be either explicit, implicit (implied), or not found in the text – depending upon the nature of the question.
RAFTs help students process information by asking them to communicate an understanding with evidence from a chosen point of view to an appropriate audience using the most effective product for their purpose. The RAFT acronym stands for Role, Audience, Format and Topic.
Students deepen understanding by creating story maps which analyze character, setting, plot, and themes or by answering the journalistic questions (Who? What? Where? When? Why? and How?)
Writing Prompts and Journaling
Students respond in written form to questions, problems, or scenarios posed by evaluation and interpretation of sources. Journal entries can be exchanged amongst peers and reviewed.